ⅠShenhe District: A District with a Long History
Located in the center of Shenyang, Shenhe District was near to Dadong District with Lianhua Street as its east end and Xiaobeiguan Street, Guangyi Street, north Shuncheng Street as its northeast end. South and north Sanjing streets form its west border, which was shared by Heping District. The south end of Shenhe District was Hun River, separating it from Dongling District. The north end of it laid Changchun-Dalian Railway, adjacent to Huanggu District. In February, 2010, the administrative divisions of Shenyang were reformed. A part of Dongling District (with East Third Ring Road on its west, Hun River on the north, and Shenyang-Jilin Railway on its south) was placed under Shenhe District, making it a 58km2 district with 15 sub-district administrative offices and 124 communities. Among its 1.1 million resident population, people with Han nationality command the majority, and the rest of them consists of 22 minorities, such as Man, Hui, Menggu, Chaoxian.
Shenhe District bears a long history, known as the political, trade, financial, and cultural center of Shenyang. It’s also a popular tourist attraction and an open gateway. It is the earliest booming district that contributes to further development of Shenyang.
According to historical records, Shenhe District, serving as a crucial military town in Shenyang, was then named as “Hull City” in Western Han Dynasty around 128 AD. From the end of the Han Dynasty to the Three Kingdoms period, it was put under Xuantu County and it was burnt to the ground when the Koguryo attacked the county. In 928 AD, it was built as a city called Shenzhou from Liao Dynasty to the Late Jin Dynasty. In the year of 1297 (the first year of Emperor Cheng Zong’s reign in Yuan Dynasty), a new “soil-built city” named Shenyang Lu was constructed on the relics of Shenzhou (which was destructed in the war) in Yuan Dynasty. In the year of 1388 (the 21st year of Emperor Hong Wu’s reign in Ming Dynasty), the soil-built city was transformed into a brick-built one, known as Shenyang Zhongwei (also known as Shenyang Wei). In 1634, Hong Taiji renamed it as the Blessed Shengjing (also known as Shengjing). In 1636, Hong Taiji changed the title of the reigning dynasty as “Qing”, and made Shengjing the capital city. However, in 1944, the capital was moved to Beijing. Therefore, Shengjing was considered the secondary capital (the old capital) due to his historical importance and this status remained unchanged for more than 270 years until the demise of Qing Dynasty. In 1657 (the 14th year of Emperor Shunzhi’s reign), a local government Mukden Fu was established, so the city was also called “Mukden”. In 1664 (the 3rd year of Emperor Kangxi’s reign), Chengde County was made the “capital county” of Shuntian Fu. In 1905 (the 31st year of Emperor Guangxu’s reign), the Qing government set up another administrative organization, known as the Prefecture of Mukden, superior to Mukden fu. Thus, the city was called “Mukden Shengcheng” as well. After the founding of ROC, the city was named Shenyang County after a few changes. In 1923(the 12th year of ROC), it was called Mukden. In 1928 (the 17th year of ROC), after the event “the Change of Banner” in northeast initiated by General Chang Hsueh-liang, Mukden was renamed as Shenyang. The Japanese conquered Shenyang after the September 18th incident, so its name was restored to Mukden. In January, 1938, the Japanese government there officially established the administrative division of district. Afterwards, 11 districts were founded including Shenyang, Hunhe, Dadong. In October, 1945, the democratic government of Shenyang was founded and its name was changed back to Shenyang. On November 20th, 1948, after the liberation of Shenyang, 8 districts (Shenhe, Dadong, Heping, etc.) were set up in the city, and two of them, Shenyang District and Hunhe District were Incorporated into one district, Shenhe District (the name is the combination of Shen from Shenyang and He from Hunhe).