The first Emperor of Qing Dynasty, Aisin-Gioro Nurhachi, also known as Qing Taizu, is a Jurchen. The 38th year of Emperor Jiajing of Ming Dynasty (1559), he was born in Zuoweisukesuhu tribe of Jianzhou located in A’la City. Nurhachi is the founder of Late Jin Dynasty, and also its first khan. It is said that Nurhachi could speak Chinese and was fond of reading The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. At the age of 25, he unified the tribes of Jurchen, conquered the northeast of China, and defeated the army of Ming Dynasty for many times. In the 44th year of the Emperor Wanli, he founded Late Jin with Liaodong as its territory, and opened an era called “Tianming”. After the battle of Sa’erhu, he moved the capital to Sheyang. The next year, he was injured by Yuan Chonghuan, a general of Ming, and died in distress. After the founding of Qing Dynasty, he was honored as Qing Taizu.
On April, 13th, 1618, Nurhachi held a morale-uplifting meeting to “pledge to the god” in Xingjing, and declared the anti-Ming polemic concerning the “seven causes for enmity” with Ming. On March, 1619, Ming raised and army of 140,000 soldiers to attack Nurhachi’s army. Nurhachi grasped the opportunity and concentrated his forces to beat the enemy. Nurhachi was very determined and confident. He once said, “No matter how strong you are, I will defeat you.” At the battle of Sa’erhu, he and his army wiped out 60,000 soldiers from Ming and achieve a decisive success. After that, he conquered Kaiyuan and Tieling strategically, making Ming lose the barrier against Late Jin in Liaodong. Scholars from Ming then commented, “Tieling and Kaiyuan are the strongest barrier in Liaodong to defend against the enemy. Since they have been conquered by the enemy, we can say that Hedong was already in the grasp of the enemy.” In 1621, Nurhachi moved the capital to Liaoyang and founded Dongjing city. The second year of Tianqi, also the seventh year of Tianming (1622), Nurhachi defeated official Xiong Tingbi and Liaodong provincial governor Wang Huazhen, and seized Guangning of Liaoxi (now known as Beining of Liaoning). Xiong Tingbi was beheaded due to the defeat, and Wang Huazhen was imprisoned to death. In 1625, Nurhachi moved the capital to Shenyang.
Tang Ying (1682-1756) was a famous porcelain artist in Qing Dynasty. He was good at writing, painting, Chinese calligraphy, seal-carving, and porcelain making. He was born in Shenyang, belonged to the “white tribe of Han”. Due to his talents, he was appointed as the supervisor of porcelain making in Jingdezhen. For 30 years, he worked diligently and had made porcelain under the reign of Emperor Yongzheng and Emperor Qianlong. Conducting researches and experiments, he was totally absorbed in making porcelains. Because of his hard work, he was very experienced and made exquisite porcelains. Hence, he was beloved by the two emperors. At that time, the royal Kiln was also called “Tang Kiln”. Under the supervision of Tang Ying, Doucai porcelains in Qianlong period were various in shape, luxurious in decoration, and vibrant in color. The most common patterns of porcelains are lotus, double fish, and glossy ganoderma. The porcelains were made as bowls, plates, and bottles, etc. In 1756 (the 20th year of Emperor Qianlong’s reign), Tang Ying retired, and the porcelain-making industry of the royal Kiln started to be on the wane.