The moment of contracting
November 17, 1980, on invitation of Takeshi Itagaki, mayor of Sapporo, a 7 people delegation led by Song Guang, mayor of Shenyang, paid a friendly visit to Sapporo. November 18, in order to carry out communication and exchange in all fields, enhance mutual trust and understanding, strengthen the friendship and keep the friendly relationship from generation to generation, and promote the friendly relationship between China and Japan, Sapporo Mayor Takeshi Itagaki and Shenyang Mayor Song Guang signed the friendly and cooperative relations protocol on behalf of their cities in accordance with the spirit of good-neighborly relationship, equality and mutual benefit.The sister city relationship between Shenyang and Sapporo is one of the symbols of the constant development of friendly relationship between China and Japan. The communication and exchange of the two cities in economy, science, technology and culture will certainly make continuous progress in the future.
Introduction and basic information of Sapporo
Sapporo is the capital of Hokkaido. It's located in the southwest corner of Hokkaido's Ishikari Plain with an area of 1,118km2. The population of the city is about 1.8 million. It's the 5th largest city of Japan and one of the 12 cities designated by government ordinance.The name Sapporo comes from Ainu language 'sat poro pet' and can be translated as 'dry, great region'.
Sapporo is located in the southwest corner of Hokkaido's Ishikari Plain.On its east side is the basal region from Ishikari River to Nopporo old-growth forest. Teine mountain system is on the west side of it which stretches 42.3km from east to west. The mountainous region on the south side of Sapporo connects with Shikotsu-Toya National Park.On its north side is the Ishikari Dunes which connects with the Sea of Japan. It stretches 45.4km from south to north.60% of Sapporo is covered with forest.
Sapporo has a humid continental climate with a wide range of temperature between the summer and winter. Summers are generally warm but not humid, and winters are cold and very snowy.The weather is clear from April to June with forest and various kinds of flowers surrounding.And it starts to become hot from the last third of June. But there's now plum rain season.The average temperature of midsummer in July and August is about 20℃.The whole summer is cool. The highest temperature during summer is about 30℃ and only lasts for about one week.In September, the weather gets cooler as rain falls. Temperature drops and rainfall increases.Maple leaves begin to turn red in October. Snow begins to fall in the first third of November. Snow begin to fall more frequently in December.Snow begin to accumulate between December to February. Cold weather remains only for a few days with the lowest temperature at about -10℃.The winter in Sapporo is not dry. With completed indoor heating facilities, people can spend a cozy and warm winter.Weather becomes warmer in March. The average temperature in Spring is above 0℃.The annual average temperature in Sapporo is about 8.5℃. The annual precipitation is about 1,100mm.
In the year 1869 (2nd year of Meiji Governance), Japan changed Yezo into Hokkaido and started the establishment of Sapporo.Shima Yoshitake, the Chamberlain of Hokkaido at that time, planned brand new towns and streets on the east side of Maruyama Hill and introduced modern concept for metropolis planning which finally formed the orderly streets of Sapporo today.In the year 1875 (8th year of Meiji Governance), the Tondenhei participated in the development of Sapporo. The construction of railroad and the development of commercial and industry also began successively.
Former Hokkaido Government Office abolished the Bureau of Colonization in the year 1882. And then Hokkaido was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate, Sapporo, and Nemuro in accordance with the administrative division of other regions of Japan.In the year 1884, the name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. Shortly after that, Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in the year 1886. The territory of 'do' became the first-level administrative subdivision officially and Hokkaido was set. And the 'do' government is set in Sapporo. The Hokkaido government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, was constructed and put into use in 1888.
In the year 1992 (the enforcement of municipal organization was implemented, and Sapporo-ku was officially transferred to the Sapporo City. After that, Sapporo city began to merge the villages and towns around it to enlarge its territory. The population continuously increased since then.In the year 1947, Japan implemented local autonomy law. The Sapporo mayor was first elected by people for the first time.In the year 1950, Sapporo hosted the first Sapporo Snow Festival.In the year 1970, the population of Sapporo city exceeded one million after 102 years of its establishment. Two years later, in 1972, Sapporo city was officially upgraded into a city designated by government ordinance. It was then divided into 7 wards. And in the same year, the 11th Winter Olympic was held there.
There were only 7 wards in Sapporo at first. After the gradually growing in its territory and population, it has 10 wards at present.
1. Chuo-ku2. Kita-ku3. Higashi-ku4. Shiroishi-ku5. Atsubetsu-ku6. Toyohira-ku7. Kiyota-ku8. Minami-ku9. Nishi-ku10. Teine-ku
The distribution of the streets of Sapporo looks like the shape of a fan.Locust, gingko, phtanus, sakura and lilac are planted along the both side of the well ordered streets.The Park Avenue located in the city center is 64-meter wide and 1500m long. It stretches from the east to the west throughout the city.
As the economy center of Hokkaido, the main industry of Sapporo is service. There are lots of branches of Japanese national companies and barely local enterprises. Its major industries are food, printing, linen textile, machine manufacturing and metalware.The famous Sapporo Brewery is savory and mellow in taste and is one of the world famous beer brands.
Hassamu Iron Industry Zone (located in Nishi-ku);Hassamu 2nd Industry Zone (located in Nishi-ku);Woodworking Industry Zone (located in Nishi-ku);Shinkawa Industry Zone (located in Kita-ku);Logistics Business Region (located in Shiroishi-ku);Teine Industry Zone (located in Teine-ku);Teine Yamaguchi Light Industry Zone (located in Teine-ku);Sapporo Science and Technology Park (located in Atsubetsu-ku);Shinei High-tech Industrial Park (located in Kiyota-ku).
As the political and economic center of Hokkaido, Sapporo has complete transportation facilities including 2 highways, 3 JR railway lines and 2 airports.In the urban area, Sapporo Transportation Bureau built 3 subways, JR Bus, Chuo Bus and other bus lines, which made up a public transportation net.
Culture and education
Sapporo is the cultural center of Hokkaido.The famous universities including Hokkaido University, Hokkaido University of Art, Sapporo Medical University and Sapporo College of Agriculture are located there.The major cultural facilities in Sapporo are Contemporary Art Gallery, Sapporo Museum of Sculpture and Sapporo City Archive Museum.
Features of Sapporo city
Sapporo has a fine scenery. There are many parks and scenic spots in the city. Asahiyama Park which locates in the southwest part of Sapporo is built in geometric modeling while Nakajima Park is built into a classical pebble garden.Hasso-an, which was built in Edo period, Hokkaido Shrine, which was built in the first year of Meiji period, and the only Russian style architecture----the Bell Tower are all remained carefully in Sapporo.Hokkaido Exploition Memorial Museum and the memorial tower for the development of Hokkaido which located in the countryside recorded the lives of indigenous Ainu settlements and the history of how Japanese people developed Hokkaido.Mountain Moiwa which locates in the southwest of the city is 531m in height. 420 kinds of trees are growing there.In the night, people can enjoy the beautiful scenery of Sapporo and do ice and snow sports there in winter.Nopporo Forest Park is on the east side of Sapporo.
Sapporo is covered with thick white snow in winter.Odori Park which locates in the middle of Park Avenue is the place where Sapporo Snow Festival held each year.Snow Festival is a winter activity for all citizens to participate.Since the winter of 1949 when the students of Sapporo Senior Middle School for Industry made ice sculpture, Sapporo citizens have held Snow Festival in every February after that. And in the festival, various kinds of ice sculptures are shown. Such as panda, Momotaro, the characters from 'Journey to the West' and other fairy tales, and models of world famous architectures.All these ice sculptures are delicacy lifelike.In the night, the ice sculptures are shining in the colorful lights.In February, 1972, the 11th Winter Olympic Games was held in Sapporo.
Hokkaido citizens and Chinese people have been in good relationship for a long time.Before 18th century, Japan invited 13 Chinese experts to go to Hokkaido to help the development of industry and agriculture.After the establishment of diplomatic relations, the contact and exchange between Chinese people and Hokkaido citizens became more frequently.In the year 1980, China and Japan decided to establish consulates in Guangzhou and Sapporo. In September 10 that year, Chinese Consulate General in Sapporo officially opened.In the same year, Sapporo city and Shenyang established sister-city relationship.In the past 30 years, the two sides have carried out extensive exchange in economy, trade, culture, education, sports, health and city construction, and have achieved fruitful results.
Economic activity is the core of the cooperation between the two cities.In 1984, Shenyang sent its delegation to attend the international product exhibition held in Sapporo and set our permanent sample exhibition booth with the help and support of Sapporo government.In 1986, Sapporo also set their permanent sample exhibition hall in Shenyang.Both exhibition halls replace the items on display periodically to search for the opportunity for economic cooperations between the two cities.In September,1990, Shenyang University of Technology Computer Institute and Sapporo Software Company jointly founded 4S Software Company. In November, 1994, Shenyang General Union Federation, Service Bureau and Sapporo Lilac Industry Joint-stock Company signed the agreement for the establishment of restaurant company.In the year 2001, Shenyang delegation led by Vice-mayor Li Jia went to Sapporo to attend Electronic Silk Road--Asia IT Industry Conference.In September, 2003, Shenyang Mayor Chen Zhenggao met with Sapporo entrepreneurship delegation who came to Shenyang to attend manufacturing expo.
In September, 2007, Hiroyuki Nakata, Vice-mayor of Sapporo, led the delegation to come to Shenyang to attend 'International Forum on Regional Cooperation and Development in Northeast Asia', and signed the 'SS project' cooperation agreement on IT industry.In September, 2010, Zeng Wei, secretary of municipal party committee, led Shenyang economic and trade delegation to Japan and attended the series activities for commemorating the 30 anniversary for the establishment of sister-city relationship between Shenyang and Sapporo.
Recreational and sports activities are the link in the exchange of the citiesIn the past 30 years, Shenyang Acrobatics Troupe, Song and Dance Troupe, Gymnastics Troupe, Martial Arts Troupe and Marathon Troupe all visited Sapporo on its invitation.In May, 1994, Ozawa Seiji led his orchestra to pay a friendly visit and give performance under the promotion of the governments on both sides.During the 3rd China (Shenyang) International Yangko Festival, the bass drum group came from Sapporo left Shenyang audiences with deep impression.In October, 1999, Sapporo Dancing Troupe came to Shenyang with their Ditty of Drawing Nets and gave Shenyang citizens a refreshing performance of traditional Hokkaido style Japanese folk songs and dances.
In the past 30 years, the two cities all sent their delegations to attend 'Northern Intercity Conference', 'Sapporo International Economic, Trade and Manufacturing Expo', 'Shenyang Machinery Manufacturing Expo', 'International Forum on Regional Cooperation and Development in Northeast Asia' and the activities hosted for commemorating the anniversaries for the establishment of sister-city relationship between Shenyang and Sapporo.At present, the two cities have already carried out cooperations in environmental protection and tourism. With these opportunities, the friendly relationship between the two cities is marching toward an extensive, thorough and practical direction.