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Turin
source: Foreign Affairs Office of Shenyang Municipal People's Goverment  2018-03-26 14:30

Time of treaty

On February 12 afternoon, 1985, the signing ceremony for the establishment of friendly relationship between Shenyang, China, and Turin, Italy, was held at the city hall of Turin.Zhang Hongjun, head of Shenyang friendship delegation, and Giorgio Cardetti, mayor of Turin signed on the agreement on behalf of their cities.It's emphasized in the agreement that the two parties would further develop exchange and cooperation and enhance mutual understanding and friendship.The two cities agreed to establish sister-city relationship.Shenyang and Turin would positively promote economic cooperation and trade contacts, carry out exchange in science, technology, culture, education, sports and health, and make contribution to the prosperity and development of the two cities on basis of friendly cooperation and mutual benefit.

Walk in Turin

Basic information

Turin is a city and an important business and cultural center in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin (an administrative division of Italy) and of the Piedmont region. It's the third largest city of Italy. The central area of Turin is 130.17km² with a population of 911,534, which makes it the forth largest city in population in Italy. The urban area of Turin is 1,126.6km² with a population of 1,745,221. The metropolitan area of Turin is 1,977km² with a population of 2,200,000 which takes up 3.4% of the population of Italy.

Geographical location

Coordinates of Turin is 07°40′34″E, 45°04′45″N. It's located on the plain surrounded by Po river, Stura di Lanzo river and the Sangone river. It's the neighbor of Genoa and Milan. Po river runs from the south to the north through the city and divides Turin into two parts. The east bank of the city is upland and the other part of the city on the west bank is plain. The elevation is 243m.

Climate

Turin is located on the humid subtropical climate zone. Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Annual average temperature is 1.9 °C higher than that in the urban area. Annual mean temperature difference can be 20.9°C. Rain falls mostly in April, May, June and October. Winter is the season with least rainfall. Annual rainfall is about 1000mm.

History

In 3 century BC, Turin was only a small village at that time. It was occupied by a Celto-Ligurian tribe which belongs to Salassi people.The real origin of the city can be dated back to the castrum built by Julius Caesar during Gallic War (58 BC).In 29 BC, Turin became the colony of Roman Empire. At that time, about 5,000 residents living inside the city wall.A well-planned city was gradually built up during this period of time. The streets are as neat and well-ordered as checkerboards. The urban layout has been kept till today.

After the fall of Roman Empire, Turin was conquered by Ostrogoths and Lombards successively and was divided into duchy when Lombards was in charge.In 773 AD, Charlemagne occupied Turin.In the a few centuries after that Turin was taken as the duchy of Holy Roman Empire and had been ruled by many governors.

In the 12th century it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin.

In the 15th century, the city was redesigned. Many gardens and palaces were built in this period.In 1404, Turin University was founded. It's one of the oldest universities of Italy.In 1416, Amedeo VIII entitled Piemonte Count manor to duchy, completely unified Piemonte region and established Turin Duke Parliament. By then, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.

In the 16th century, the army of French King Francois I invaded Turin from 1536 to 1562 and built a giant pentagon defensive fortress.

In 1620, 16 centuries after the born of Carlo · Emanuele I, the first large scale expansion of the city was carried out. The city was built in accordance with the city pattern of ancient Roman times.The way of the city expansion made a solid foundation for the expansion in the next a few centuries.In the first half of the 17th century, Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded for Sardinia. Turin then became the capital of these two kingdoms.

In the 19th century, after the short conquer of Napoleon, Turin started to try to unify Italy.In 1815, Congress of Vienna and the restoration of the Bourbons let Sardinia Kingdom obtained Republic of Genoa and the whole Liguria, which laid the solid foundation for the unification of Italy in 50 years.1861---1865, Turin was the capital of the unified Italy Kingdom;The capital was then changed to Florence;Italy designated Rome to be the capital from 1870;In 1871, the opening of Fréjus Rail Tunnel made Turin the important joint connecting Italy and France.By this time, Turin had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period.

The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906.The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the World Expo in 1911.During this period of time, Turin gave up the traditional octangle urban planning and implemented the second large-scale expansion. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.Turin became the major industrial center in the beginning of the 20th century due to the development automobile manufacturing industry, which made it won the nickname of "automotive capital of Italy".

Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids.Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945.By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945.

The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy.In 1960, population of Turin in the urban area reached one million.In 1974, population of Turin in the urban area reached 1.2 million.In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years.The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 in 2001 to slightly over 900,000 in 2009.

Economy

Industry of Turin developed rapidly after WWII, especially automotive manufacturing industry. Output takes up 90% of the total.Turin is still one of the most important industrial cities of Italy and Europe and one of the World's four automotive cities.Turin is a major automotive and aerospace center, home of Fiat. The engine manufacturing base of Airbus is also in Turin.The International Space Station modules Harmony, Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin.The headquarters of many World's top-500 enterprises are set in Turin, most of which are electronic processing industry.Technology-intensive industry such as engine, machine tool, electronic processing, electric appliance, chemistry, bearings, aeroplane, precise instrument, instrument and armament industry is prioritized on the basis of the cheap water and electricity of the Alps. Electric arc furnace steel making is quite advanced. It also owns rubber, paper making, leather and printing industry.

1/3 of the chocolate manufacturers of Italy are in Piedmont. This ancient city is called sweetest place of Italy and won the reputation of chocolate capital.Every chocolate store has its own unique skill for making chocolate and cacao paste. The most classic is Gianduja cacao hazelnut powder chocolate and Pralina filled chocolate.

Transportation in Turin is well developed. It's the transportation hub to Mont Blanc (border of France and Italy) and St.Bernard Tunnel (border of France and Italy).Railway and roads connect all major cities of Italy and Leon, Nice and Monaco of France.It also owns international airports and heliports.

Culture and educaiton

Turin is an ancient artistic and cultural city. It owns lots of art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, squares, parks, yards, theaters libraries, museums and other places of interest. Turin is famous for its Baroco style, Rococo style and neo-classical French architecture. Such as Basilica di Superga, Royal Palace and Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi. And many other important and famous museums. Such as Egypt Museum and Mole Antonelliana.

Turin is the important center for universities, culture, tourism and science. It owns the best universities, colleges, institutes, high schools and high schools of art. University of Turin established in 1405, Polytechnic University of Turin, colleges of science and engineering, National Joseph Fudi Conservatory of Music and Modern Science and Technology Research Center.

Turin is the important center for publication, telecommunication, movie, gourmet, design and sports. It owns the Shroud of Turin which attracts the world's attention, and famous football clubs such as Juventus and Turin. Juventus has won lots of championship in Italian Football League. In February, 2006, the 20th Winter Olympic Games was held in Turin. In March the same year, the 9th Winter Paralympic Games was also held in Turin.

Friendly exchange

Early in 1983, introduced by Italian Maco Polo 2000 company, mayor of Turin, Italy, Mr.Diego Novelli contacted with Shenyang through letters and phone calls in the hope of establishing sister-city relationship with Shenyang.On June 20, 1984 morning, Dai Lishu, general manager of Maco Polo 2000 company and the official in charge of Shenyang People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries Sister-city Relationship Office had discussion on the establishment of sister-city relationship between the two cities. She also extended the good wish of Turin mayor and the plan that he would send a friendly delegation led by the vice mayor to visit Shenyang, meet the leaders of Shenyang and have discussions on the establishment of sister-city relationship.On 5th October, 1984, on the invitation of Shenyang Municipal Government, the 9-people Turin friendship delegation led by Afili, vice mayor of Turin came to Shenyang to negotiated with Shenyang about the establishment of sister-city relationship. Zhang Hongjun, vice mayor of Shenyang met with the member of the delegation and held conversations on the positive establishment of sister-city relationship, exchange and cooperation between the two cities and promotion of mutual understanding and friendship.On October 7, Zhang Hongjun, vice mayor of Shenyang and Afili, vice mayor of Turin signed intention agreement of friendly cooperation.On January 29, 1985, on the invitation of Turin Municipal Government, Shenyang friendly delegation led by Zhang Hongjun, vice mayor of Shenyang, went to Turin. On February 12 afternoon, the signing ceremony for the establishment of sister-city relationship between Shenyang and Turin was held at the city hall of Turin. Zhang Hongjun and Giorgio Bellono, mayor of Turin signed on the agreement on behalf of the two parties.On September 20, Shenyang delegation led by Zhang Rongmao, vice mayor of Shenyang, concluded the friendly visit to Turin, Italy.During the visit, the delegation met with relevant officials of the government and exchanged their opinions on cooperation of economy, trade, science and culture.On September 15, 1991, according to the cultural exchange agreement, the exhibition of the historical relics of Shenyang Imperial Palace was held in Turin. Altogether 99 pieces of historical relics were shown in the exhibition.During the exhibition, Francesco Cossiga, president of Italy, and Spadolini, senate president, also went to see the exhibition.On June 27, 1994, on the invitation of Shenyang a 9-people delegation led by Valentino Castellani came to visit Shenyang. Shenyang mayor Zhang Rongmao met with the delegation. On June 29, the delegation met with Shenyang Municipal People's Congress. On September 1, 1998, Xu Wencai, secretary of Shenyang Municipal People's Congress, met with the delegation led by Pulogne, adviser for the mayor of Turin mayor, who came to Shenyang to attend "21 Century World City Development and Cooperation Forum". On December 2, 2002, on the invitation of Turin, Italy, Shenyang delegation led by Zhang Xingxiang, secretary of Shenyang Municipal People's Committee, visited Turin, attended the "Illustration Meeting of China Shenyang Italian Industrial Park" and matched and signed a batch of important projects.On February 28, 2003, the signing ceremony of the Promotion Meeting of the Projects of China (Shenyang)---Italy (Turin) Medium and Small Enterprises was held in Shenyang Continental Hotel.Leader of Italy Turin medium and small enterprise delegation and chairman of medium and small enterprise association Pizzalai, Zhang Xingxiang, secretary of Shenyang Municipal People's Committee, Gu Chunming, member of municipal people's committee and secretary-general, Zhao Changyi, vice mayor of Shenyang attended the signing ceremony.From January 30 to February 6, 2005, on the invitation of Turin Municipal Government and Large, Medium and Small Enterprises Association of Piedmont Region, a 4-people delegation led by Zhou Hang, vice director of Shenyang Economic Development Zone Administrative Committee, went to Turin, Italy, to negotiate over the cooperation projects on behalf of Tiexi district.From May 22 to June 3, 2006, Shenyang economic and trade delegation led by Li Yingjie, Shenyang mayor, paid friendly visit to Italy, Germany, Belgium and France. During the visit to Turin, Shenyang mayor Li Yingjie and Turin mayor Sergio Chiamparino had conversations on how to carry out in-depth exchange and cooperation in economy and trade.July 9th, 2011, Shenyang municipal government delegation went to Turin, Italy, to host "Turin---Shenyang Image of Shenyang Picture Exhibition".At present, the two cities have carried out many important exchanges and cooperations in automobile, machine tools, culture, and urban construction.

Editor: zfw05